Решением Высшего Совета по науке и технологическому развитию Академии наук Молдовы и Национального Совета по аккредитации и аттестации журнал «Право и политология» признан как издание в области права и политологии, относящееся к научным журналам категории «Б» (решение № 151 от 21 июля 2014 года).
Журнал «Право и политология» является международным изданием научных партнеров
ИНСТИТУТ ЮРИДИЧЕСКИХ И ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ
АКАДЕМИИ НАУК МОЛДОВЫ
ГЕЛАТСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ НАУК (ГРУЗИЯ)
ВЫСШАЯ ШКОЛА ПО БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ И ЭКОНОМИКИ (БОЛГАРИЯ)
МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ АССОЦИАЦИЯ ИЗРАИЛЬ-АЗЕРБАЙДЖАН (ИЗРАИЛЬ)
PhD student, Master of the Academy of Public Administration
under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
ESTABLISHMENT OF A MECHANISM FOR REGULATING FOREIGN RELATIONS OF LOCAL AUTHORİTİES OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN (SPECIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN AND LOCAL EXECUTIVE POWERS)
As a result of our country's victory in the Patriotic War, in accordance with the new realities that have arisen in the South Caucasus region, the reputation of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the international arena has increased and new prospects for future development have emerged. First of all, the restoration and reconstruction of the rich in natural resources territories liberated by our country after 30 years of occupation, as well as recognition of these territories as the bearer of Azerbaijan's heritage and culture in the international community are among the main goals facing our state. At the same time, it is important to promote the existing opportunities of these lands in the fields of agriculture and energy and to attract foreign investments. In order to achieve the above-mentioned goals, in addition to the existing local authorities of the liberated regions, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan has established Special Representations, a new type of local government.
The purpose of the article is, first of all, to identify ways to improve the mechanism of coordinating the foreign policy of the Government of Azerbaijan with the activities of local authorities (Special Representations of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan and executive authorities) based on the experience of foreign countries. This article examines the relations between the central government and local governments in the French Republic, which has the most successful experience among European countries in this field, as well as a complex system model for the development of international cooperation of the regions and proposes to apply this model in Azerbaijan.
Keywords: Local authorities, Special Representations of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, foreign relations of the regions, decentralized cooperation.
The 44-Day War, which took place between September 27 and November 10, 2020, ended with the signing of the Trilateral Declaration by Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russia, and the liberation by our country of its territories occupied for nearly 30 years and led to the emergence of new realities in the South Caucasus region. It is a well-known fact that the liberated lands have rich natural resources, and during the years of occupation, these resources were illegally exploited by the Armenian invaders. Currently, the restoration and reconstruction work carried out by the country's leadership in the Karabakh region will make it possible to use the potential of these areas. As a result of the measures taken, not only the geostrategic and geoeconomic role of Azerbaijan will be further strengthened, but also the development of the region as a whole will be stimulated. This, in turn, will strengthen the position of the South Caucasus countries in the system of international economic relations and in the international West-East and North-South transport corridors. Establishing sustainable peace in the region will also have a positive effect on the business environment and will allow the countries of the region to attract more investment [1, p. 20].
The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan signed the Decree dated February 4, 2021 on the establishment of Special Representations for the purpose of organizing tasks and works in the direction of restoration and reconstruction in the liberated territories. The decree defines the directions of action for the development of the territories in accordance with the established goals, as well as the provision of necessary security, economic, social, communal and other measures for the return of the population to their places of residence and settlement . In addition, restoration of the liberated territories based on the best experiences in foreign countries, the application of the latest information and communication and innovative technologies of the modern era, as well as in accordance with "Azerbaijan 2030: the National Priorities for socio-economic development"  arising from the UN's "Transformation of our world: Agenda in the field of sustainable development until 2030", including the creation of a "green energy zone" , the implementation of the concepts of "smart city" in Agdam and "smart village" in Zangilan , moreover the implementation of solar energy projects in the areas of Zangilan, Jabrayil, Gubadli and Fuzuli in the field of renewable energy constitute the main tasks facing our country .
Although the above-mentioned measures are implemented mainly from the funds allocated from the state budget, at the current stage, the issue of attracting foreign investments to the liberated territories occupies a central place among the foreign policy priorities of Azerbaijan. In this regard, for the purpose of studying the experiences of other countries, introducing the above-mentioned areas to the world community, and promoting the existing opportunities in these areas, it is necessary to prepare a cohesive foreign relations strategy of special representations, as well as to regulate the mechanism of establishment relations with the cities of foreign countries. Thus, the creation of the decentralized cooperation department under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , the central executive body that implements the foreign policy of the Republic of Azerbaijan, can be considered precisely for this purpose. In this context, looking at the world practice, the current system in the field of development of foreign relations of regions in the Republic of France can be considered as a model.
The experience of the Republic of France
There are various models of relations formed between the central government and local authorities. For France, the founder of the continental model, a high level of centralization of local authorities has been traditional throughout history. For quite a long time, a system of multi-level organization of local authorities existed in France, where the activity of the lower levels depended significantly on the upper management bodies . In modern France, the prefect, who is considered a representative of the state power and determines all directions of local activity, plays an important role in the local authority’s system. In a certain sense, the emergence of this ruling institution in the administrative management mechanism was conditioned by the principle of a single and indivisible nation defined in France after the 1789 revolution. It should be noted that regional diversity, which was previously typical for the French administrative system, was eliminated over time, and departments were created instead. Currently, these departments are headed by a representative of the central government, who has wide powers and supervises the management of the respective territory. It can be said that this highly centralized system has existed in France for more than 200 years [9, p. 27].
The decentralization carried out in France in 1982 led to the expansion of the powers of regional collectives and their great freedom in solving local issues. However, this did not justify the loss of the strong position of the central government in the localities . Therefore, in order to implement a new government policy for the decentralization of power, in 1983, Laws on the distribution of powers and financial resources between communes, departments, regions and the state were adopted. According to the law, communes, departments and regions, in order to ensure that the measures they implement in the framework of their foreign activities comply with the constitution and legislation of the country, as well as with the foreign policy of France, and to obtain the necessary advice in this field, must systematically and regularly inform the government. For this purpose, the government decides to appoint a representative in the capacity as the Secretary General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the external activities of local authorities. The designated representative has the following missions :
- Collecting and analyzing information on relations between French local authorities and their counterparts from partner countries, as well as bringing to the attention of the government any problems that may arise from these relations;
- providing assistance to the Commissioners of the Republic in all matters related to the external activities of local authorities;
- implementation of general coordination between various services of central executive authorities regarding external activities of local authorities.
In addition to the mentioned duties, the above-mentioned representative maintains regular contact with the local authorities and ensures their connection with the country's diplomatic missions abroad . Thus, the history of the appointment of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development (Ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international-MAEDI) as an institution that aligns the foreign activities of local authorities with the foreign policy priorities of the state has begun. The External Action Delegation of Local Self-Governing Bodies (La Délégation pour l’action extérieure des collectivités territoriales - DAECT), operating under the Ministry, defines and implements the strategy to support cooperation with regions (calls for projects, creation of joint geographic funds). DAECT carries out this activity in connection with other partners: dialogue with local authorities and their associations, organization of working groups promoting a joint approach, development of mutual cooperation with partners, etc.
Moreover, in consultation with diplomatic missions abroad, it defines and implements geographic strategies for the development of decentralized cooperation, especially in countries where French local authorities have little or no cooperation. At the same time, DAECT provides information, analysis and advisory services to local authorities with external relations, as well as establishing liaison facilities to facilitate consultation and coordination. Also, it contributes to the improvement of procedures for the preparation of draft legal documents and the implementation of interregional cooperation . MAEDI's activity in this area has been regularly improved in order to increase efficiency. Thus, taking into account the contribution of local authorities to the increase of the country's reputation in the international community, as well as to the identification of new opportunities for cooperation between other countries and France by promoting and developing cooperation with counterparts from partner countries, the creation of a position on decentralized cooperation in French diplomatic missions was considered expedient . Since 2016, in accordance with Article 72 of the French Constitution, the appointment of prefect's diplomatic advisers representing the government on local authorities has been initiated . Currently, 13 diplomatic advisers have been appointed to strengthen the partnership between state and local authorities .
In general, the complex system with high efficiency indicators in the field of the development of foreign relations of French regions is ahead of the indicators of other countries in the world's experience. So, according to the figures for 2021, 4,762 French local authorities have cooperation with 3,031 (in 138 countries) counterparts from partner states, including more than 6,700 twinning relations and 4,000 decentralized cooperation projects in various fields have been implemented (education, public and research 26%, sustainable economy 22%, culture and heritage 16%, environment, climate and energy 15%, cross-border cooperation and humanitarian policy 14%) .
The current system of local authorities in the Republic of Azerbaijan.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan, state power is organized on the basis of the principle of separation of powers. According to the concept of traditional separation of powers, the executive power belongs to the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The unified system of executive power is made up of higher, central and local executive power bodies. Implementation of laws is the main function of executive power .
The last level of the executive power system includes local authorities. Power in places is exercised by local authorities that do not belong to the state power system and operate completely independently - municipalities and executive power bodies whose heads are appointed by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan and are responsible to him. The activity of local authorities is regulated by the Regulation "On Local Executive Authority" approved by the Decree No. 138 of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated June 16, 1999 [18, p. 167]. Local executive power bodies are established according to the principle of administrative decentralization and act as local representatives of the central executive power (the President). In accordance with the second paragraph of Article 124 of the country's constitution, the head of the executive power is appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The head of the executive power is responsible to the President of the country .
The heads of local authorities base their activities on the principles of protecting the rights and freedoms and legal interests of citizens, as well as, in order to improve the welfare of the population of the respective area, ensure the development of the economy, social and cultural spheres, taking into account the principles of rule of law, openness and public opinion. The reception of citizens, the review and response to their applications, proposals and complaints in the prescribed manner and terms according to the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan "On Citizens' Appeals", are carried out in the office of the head of the local executive power, in the representative offices of the administrative territorial districts, in the representative offices of the regional administrative territorial districts, in the bodies attached to the head of the local executive power and in the legal entities subordinate to him . In addition, the powers of the head of local authorities include the following areas:
• socio-economic development of the relevant area;
• development of the agrarian section;
• consumer market and entrepreneurship development;
• the area of social protection of the population and gender equality;
• areas of improvement of people's health, sanitary-epidemiological conditions of the area and protection of the environment, provision of environmental safety;
• The field of labor relations, labor protection and population employment;
• Areas of environmental use;
• Repair-construction, architecture and urban planning areas;
• Educational and cultural areas;
• Child and youth policy, physical education, sports and tourism development areas, etc.
Local authorities in the areas listed above take measures for the implementation of state policy, analyze the current situation in the areas, determine development trends, forecast and plan development, prepare relevant proposals for the development of areas and submit them to the relevant central executive authorities . Apparently, local authorities act as a bridge between citizens and the government.
As for the foreign relations of local executive authorities, only the Department of Foreign Economic and International Relations was included in the structure of the Baku City Executive Power in the Regulation "On Local Executive Power" approved by the Decree No. 648 of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated June 6, 2012. There is no foreign relations department in the structures of the executive authorities of other cities and regions . Of course, this fact creates obstacles in the establishment of relations of local authorities with their counterparts in partner countries, in the direction of attracting investments to cities or regions, and makes it difficult to exercise coordination in this field among other state institutions.
The Department of Foreign Relations and Investment Programs is a functional state management body of the Baku City Executive Power operating in the fields such as foreign economic relations and international relations, intersectoral coordination and functional management, as well as the formation of relations between the city of Baku and foreign cities, international organizations, including the attraction of foreign investment to the city of Baku in accordance with the foreign policy of the state and its protection .
While performing its duties and exercising its rights, the Department interacts with the bodies of Baku City Executive Power, city (district) executive power, other executive power bodies, local authorities, organizations and non-governmental organizations. Also, within the framework of its powers, the Department carries out mutual activities in cooperation with the embassies and consulates abroad as well as representatives in international organizations of the Republic of Azerbaijan, including the diplomatic representations of foreign countries and international organizations in Baku .
The main directions of work of the Baku City Executive Power in the field of foreign relations are as follows:
• Preparing proposals on the strategy and main directions of Baku city's international relations with its foreign counterparts and submitting them to the Head of Baku City Executive Power;
• Ensuring the implementation of the unified policy of the city of Baku in the field of foreign economic and international relations, attracting foreign investors to the city of Baku and organizing the protection of their rights;
• To implement cooperation of Baku city with international organizations, participation of Baku city as a member in the activities of these organizations, as well as coordination of cooperation of Baku City Executive Power bodies with international organizations;
• To coordinate the international relations between the bodies of the Baku City Executive Power and foreign partners with the aim of ensuring the unified policy of the city of Baku in the field of foreign economic and international relations;
• To implement coordination between executive authorities and foreign investors within the framework of city projects and programs and to form a database on investment projects .
As it can be seen, the foreign relations departments operating under the local authorities ensure that the foreign policy priorities of our country are aligned with the activities carried out by each city and district at the local level.
The territories of Azerbaijan, which have been under occupation for nearly 30 years, were presented to the world community as the historical Armenian territories by numerous and influential Armenian communities living in Armenia and abroad, based on nonsense and false historical facts. Today, our country has restored its territorial integrity as a result of the wise internal and external policy conducted by the leadership of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As the result of defeat in the 44-day war Armenian community living abroad became unbridled and its ugly propaganda and provocation policy against our country was intensified. Taking into account all this, in addition to highlighting the results of the Armenian vandalism committed in the liberated territories and bringing them to the world community, organizing the intensive integration of these territories with other regions of our country, attracting investments for their restoration and reconstruction, promoting an available cooperation opportunities for foreign countries, and establishing cooperation or twinning relations with counterparts in partner countries, as well as the use of "soft diplomacy" (soft power) are the main goals facing our government. Work in this direction has already been done since the end of 2020. Thus, from the end of 2020, the visits of representatives of the diplomatic corps accredited in our country, including heads of international organizations, military attachés of embassies, as well as foreign journalists and representatives of NGOs are being organized to the territories liberated from occupation. In addition, 2022 was declared the "Year of Shusha"  and the corresponding Action plan was approved according to the Decree . In order to ensure the performance and efficiency of the above-listed tasks, it is necessary to develop a cohersive foreign relations strategy and create a mechanism corresponding to this strategy. In this regard, taking into account the knowledge and skills in this field, as well as the relevant experience of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as the body that implements the foreign policy of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and the diplomats working in the diplomatic missions abroad, determining and regulating the priorities of the foreign activities of local authorities in our liberated territories and coordination with other state institutions can be entrusted to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan in accordance with the French model.
Azərbaycan Respublikasının yerli özünüidarəetmə orqanlarının (Azərbaycan Respublikası Prezidentinin xüsusi nümayəndəlikləri və yerli icra hakimiyyətləri)
xarici əlaqələrinin tənzimlənməsi mexanizminin yaradılması
Azərbaycan Respublikasının Prezidenti yanında Dövlət İdarəçilik Akademiyasının magistri
Azərbaycan Respublikasının Xarici İşlər Nazirliyinin Amerika İdarəsinin
Cənubi Amerika və Karib hövzəsi şöbəsinin birinci katibi
Ölkəmizin Vətən müharibəsindəki qələbəsi nəticəsində Cənubi Qafqaz regionunda yaranmış yeni reallıqlara uyğun olaraq beynəlxalq aləmdə Azərbaycan Respublikasının nüfuzu daha da artmış və gələcək inkişaf üçün yeni perspektivlər ərsiyə gəlmişdir. 30-illik işğaldan sonra ölkəmiz tərəfindən azad edilmiş, zəngin təbii sərvətlərə malik olan ərazilərin ilk öncə bərpası və yenidən qurulması, eləcə də beynəlxalq aləmdə Azərbaycan irsinin və mədəniyyətinin daşıyıcısı kimi tanınması dövlətimizin qarşısında duran əsas məqsədlərdəndir. Eyni zamanda, bu regionlarda kənd təsərrüfatı və enerji sahəsində mövcud olan imkanların təşviqi və buraya xarici investisiyaların cəlb edilməsi də vacib yer tutur. Yuxarıda qeyd olunmuş məqsədlərin həyata keçirilməsi üçün azad olunmuş regionların mövcud yerli icra hakimiyyət orqanları ilə yanaşı Azərbaycan Respublikasının Prezidenti tərəfindən yerli idarəetmə orqanının yeni növü olan Xüsusi nümayəndəliklər yaradılmışdır.
Məqalənin məqsədi, ilk növbədə, Azərbaycan dövlətinin xarici siyasətinin yerli idarəetmə orqanlarının (Azərbaycan Respublikası Prezidentinin Xüsusi nümayəndəlikləri və icra hakimiyyətləri) fəaliyyəti ilə əlaqələndirilməsi mexanizminin xarici ölkələrin təcrübəsinə əsaslanaraq təkminləşdirilməsi yollarının müəyyən edilməsidir. Hazırkı məqalədə sözügedən sahədə Avropa ölkələri arasında ən uğurlu təcrübəyə malik olan Fransa Respublikasındakı mərkəzi hökumətlə yerli özünüidarəetmə orqanları arasında formalaşmış münasibətlər, o cümlədən regionların xarici əlaqələrinin inkişafı sahəsindəki mürəkkəb sistem modeli nəzərdən keçirilir və bu modelin Azərbaycanda tətbiq edilməsi təklif edilir.
Açar sözlər: yerli icra hakimiyyət orqanları, Azərbaycan Respublikası Prezidentinin Xüsusi nümayəndəlikləri, regionların xarici əlaqələri, regionlararası əməkdaşlıq
СОЗДАНИЕ МЕХАНИЗМА РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЯ МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ СВЯЗЕЙ ОРГАНОВ МЕСТНОГО САМОУПРАВЛЕНИЯ АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ (СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫЕ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛИ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ И МЕСТНЫЕ ИСПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ОРГАНЫ)
В соответствии с новыми реалиями в регионе Южного Кавказа в результате победы нашей страны в Великой Отечественной войне повысился авторитет Азербайджанской Республики на международной арене, появились новые перспективы дальнейшего развития. Одной из основных целей нашего государства является восстановление и реконструкция территорий, освобожденных нашей страной после 30 лет оккупации и богатых природными ресурсами, а также признание в международном сообществе их носителем азербайджанского наследия и культуры. В то же время важно продвигать существующие в этих регионах возможности в сферах сельского хозяйства и энергетики и привлекать иностранные инвестиции. Для достижения вышеуказанных целей, наряду с существующими местными органами исполнительной власти освобожденных районов, Президент Азербайджанской Республики учредил специальные представительства, представляющие собой местное самоуправление нового типа.
Цель статьи заключается, прежде всего, в выявлении путей совершенствования механизма координации внешней политики Азербайджанского государства с деятельностью органов местного самоуправления (Особых представительств Президента Азербайджанской Республики и органов исполнительной власти) на основе зарубежного опыта. В данной статье рассматриваются взаимоотношения центрального правительства и органов местного самоуправления во Французской Республике, которая имеет наиболее успешный среди европейских стран опыт в этой сфере, а также комплексная системная модель развития международных связей регионов и предлагается применять эту модель в Азербайджане.
Ключевые слова: местные исполнительные органы, специальные представительства Президента Азербайджанской Республики, внешние связи регионов, межрегиональное сотрудничество.